PINGsends a number of bytes(usually 32) to a specified machine in order to test the connection to that machine and to reveal the hostname or IP address. For example, pinging amazon.com would reveal their IP to be 126.96.36.199. You would do this by entering:
PING AMAZON.COMat the DOS prompt. Now, to check put 188.8.131.52 in your browser's location windows and hit <--ENTER--> and see what happens.
TRACERTwith the switch "-h" to reveal the number of "hops". Enter
TRACERT -h 184.108.40.206at the DOS prompt and hit <--ENTER-->. This will not only show that the hostname for 220.127.116.11 is AMAZON.COM, but will also show every single host that you are routed through to connect to AMAZON.COM.
TELNETat the DOS prompt will open a TELNET session, allowing you to emulate a termial connection with another computer. To learn more about TELNET click here.
FTP -s:login host.com
Displays or modifies access control lists (ACLs) of files. Similar to what can be
done by right-clicking the file and going to Properties, Security. You can see the current security
settings on a file or directoy by entering: CACLS filename or directoryname.
/T Changes ACLs of specified files in the current directory and all subdirectories.
/E Edit ACL instead of replacing it.
/C Continue on access denied errors.
/G user:perm Grant specified user access rights. perm = R Read, W Write, C Change, OR Full control
/R Revoke specified user's access rights (only valid with /E).
/P user:perm Replace specified user's access rights. perm = N None, R Read, W Write, C Change (write), OR F Full control
/D Deny specified user access.
General info on Access Control Lists
ACLs on Windows NT
NETSTATwill tell you the current status of your network or internet connection. Entering
NETSTATat the DOS prompt by itself will reveal the main host you are connected to. Entering
NETSTAT -Awill reveal all the current TCP and UDP port activity on your PC.
|NET ACCOUNTS||NT: Displays password rules for current account|
|NET COMPUTER||NT: Can only be used on a domain controler. Adds or drops a computer from a network. Usage: NET COMPUTER \\computername /add OR /del. Example: "NET COMPUTER \\node62 /add"|
|NET CONFIG||Displays your current workgroup settings.|
|NET DIAG||Runs the Microsoft Network Diagnostics program to display diagnostic information about your network.|
|NET GROUP||NT||NET HELP||Provides information about commands and error messages.|
|NET HELPMSG||NT: Provides more information for NT error codes. Example: "NET HELPMSG 3001" will return information on error# 3001.|
|NET INIT||Loads protocol and network-adapter drivers without binding them to Protocol Manager.|
|NET LOGOFF||Breaks the connection between your computer and the shared resources to which it is connected.|
|NET LOGON||Identifies you as a member of a workgroup.|
|NET PASSWORD||Changes your logon password.|
|NET PRINT||Displays information about print queues and controls print jobs.|
|NET SEND||Sends a broadcast message to other network machines. Syntax: NET SEND machine-name message-text Example: NET SEND CLIENT10 Log-off, we're going to bring the server down! Quicker than email and to the point. Will display over all other windows. NET SEND * message-text will broadcast the message to every network machine.|
|NET START||Starts services.|
|NET STOP||Stops services.|
|NET TIME||Displays the time on or synchronizes your computer's clock with the clock on a Microsoft Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT, Windows 95, or NetWare time server.|
|NET USE||Connects to or disconnects from a shared resource or displays information about connections.|
|NET USER||NT: Displays accounts on a node|
|NET VER||Displays the type and version number of the workgroup redirector you are using.|
|NET VIEW||Displays a list of computers that share resources or a list of shared resources on a specific computer.|
ipconfig [/? | /all | /release [adapter] | /renew [adapter] | /flushdns | /registerdns | /showclassid adapter | /setclassid adapter [classidtoset] ] adapter Full name or pattern with '*' and '?' to 'match', * matches any character, ? matches one character. Options /all Display full configuration information. /release Release the IP address for the specified adapter. /renew Renew the IP address for the specified adapter. /flushdns Purges the DNS Resolver cache. /registerdns Refreshes all DHCP leases and re-registers DNS names /displaydns Display the contents of the DNS Resolver Cache. /showclassid Displays all the dhcp class IDs allowed for adapter. /setclassid Modifies the dhcp class id. The default is to display only the IP address, subnet mask and default gateway for each adapter bound to TCP/IP. For Release and Renew, if no adapter name is specified, then the IP address leases for all adapters bound to TCP/IP will be released or renewed. For SetClassID, if no class id is specified, then the classid is removed. Examples: > ipconfig ... Show information. > ipconfig /all ... Show detailed information > ipconfig /renew ... renew all adapaters > ipconfig /renew EL* ... renew adapters named EL.... > ipconfig /release *ELINK?21* ... release all matching adapters, eg. ELINK-21, myELELINKi21adapter.
NAME - print info about the host/domain NAME using default server
NAME1 NAME2 - as above, but use NAME2 as server
help or ? - print info on common commands
set OPTION - set an option
all - print options, current server and host
[no]debug - print debugging information
[no]d2 - print exhaustive debugging information
[no]defname - append domain name to each query
[no]recurse - ask for recursive answer to query
[no]search - use domain search list
[no]vc - always use a virtual circuit
domain=NAME - set default domain name to NAME
srchlist=N1[/N2/.../N6] - set domain to N1 and search list to N1,N2, etc.
root=NAME - set root server to NAME
retry=X - set number of retries to X
timeout=X - set initial time-out interval to X seconds
type=X - set query type (ex. A,ANY,CNAME,MX,NS,PTR,SOA,SRV)
querytype=X - same as type
class=X - set query class (ex. IN (Internet), ANY)
[no]msxfr - use MS fast zone transfer
ixfrver=X - current version to use in IXFR transfer request
server NAME - set default server to NAME, using current default server
lserver NAME - set default server to NAME, using initial server
finger [USER] - finger the optional NAME at the current default host
root - set current default server to the root
ls [opt] DOMAIN [> FILE] - list addresses in DOMAIN (optional: output to FILE)
-a - list canonical names and aliases
-d - list all records
-t TYPE - list records of the given type (e.g. A,CNAME,MX,NS,PTR etc.)
view FILE - sort an 'ls' output file and view it with pg
exit - exit the program
Manipulates network routing tables.
ROUTE [-f] [-p] [command [destination] [MASK netmask] [gateway] [METRIC metric] [IF interface]
-f Clears the routing tables of all gateway entries. If this is used in conjunction with one of the commands, the tables are cleared prior to running the command.
-p When used with the ADD command, makes a route persistent across boots of the system. By default, routes are not preserved when the system is restarted. Ignored for all other commands, which always affect the appropriate persistent routes. This option is not supported in Windows 95.
command One of these:
PRINT Prints a route
ADD Adds a route
DELETE Deletes a route
CHANGE Modifies an existing route
destination Specifies the host.
MASK Specifies that the next parameter is the 'netmask' value.
netmask Specifies a subnet mask value for this route entry.
If not specified, it defaults to 255.255.255.255.
gateway Specifies gateway.
interface the interface number for the specified route.
METRIC specifies the metric, ie. cost for the destination.
All symbolic names used for destination are looked up in the network database file NETWORKS. The symbolic names for gateway are looked up in the host name database file HOSTS.
If the command is PRINT or DELETE. Destination or gateway can be a wildcard, (wildcard is specified as a star '*'), or the gateway argument may be omitted.
If Dest contains a * or ?, it is treated as a shell pattern, and only matching destination routes are printed. The '*' matches any string, and '?' matches any one char. Examples: 157.*.1, 157.*, 127.*, *224*.
Invalid MASK generates an error, that is when (DEST & MASK) != DEST.
Example> route ADD 18.104.22.168 MASK 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 IF 1 The route addition failed: The specified mask parameter is invalid.
(Destination & Mask) != Destination.
> route PRINT
> route ADD 188.8.131.52 MASK 255.0.0.0 184.108.40.206 METRIC 3 IF 2
destination^ ^mask ^gateway metric^ ^
If IF is not given, it tries to find the best interface for a given gateway.
> route PRINT
> route PRINT 157* .... Only prints those matching 157*
> route DELETE 220.127.116.11
> route PRINT
"CHKDSK". If you are in doubt about what version of DOS you are running or how old yor system is, type
CHKDSKat the DOS prompt. any newer version of DOS will tell you that
CHKDSKis no longer availble and to use
SCANDISK C:and the program will open and begin checking your hard drive for physical damage and will also examine the file structure to find various errors. If the errors are not to serious,
SCANDISKwill fix them for you.
MEMwill tell you how much memory(Random Operating Memory) you have and how much is being used. If you have a program or a process that needs a minimum amount of RAM, use
SCANDISK, you should use
DEFRAGdefragments your hard drive, meaning it makes better use of the free space by putting all the used space together in an order that makes data access easier. It's a lot like cleaing up a cluttered closet. Enter
DEFRAG C:at the DOS prompt and the program will open. Often, the program will allow you to view the process.
Current fixed disk drive: 1|
Choose one of the following:
1. Create DOS partition or Logical DOS Drive
2. Set Active partition
3. Delete partition or Logical DOS Drive
4. Display partition information
Enter choice: 
Press ESC to exit FDISK
Displays, sets, or removes Windows NT environment variables.
Typing SET will reveal what all the environment variables are set to.
PROCESSOR_IDENTIFIER=x86 Family 15 Model 2 Stepping 7, GenuineIntel
SYS C: A:, places the OS on C: onto the floppy disk in A:. Not found on XP or 2000.
io.sys, himem.sys, msdos.sys, command.com, sys.com, edit.exe, regedit.exe, and
scandisk.With these programs you can work on a dead computer, as long as it has a working floppy drive. With the disk still in the drive, power down your PC and reboot it. The PC will now boot to the flopy disk with the A:\> as your prompt.
For those of you who have tried to run FORMAT A: /S in XP and 2000, you will notice that /S is not a valid switch. If you do FORMAT/? you will see there is no switch that places the DOS OS on a disk. The SYS command is also no longer available.
In Windows 2000 there is a ultility on the original installation
CD in the folder BOOTDISK. To create one manually, use
FORMAT A: /U. Find these files on your computer:
NTDETECT.COM and NTLDR.SYS and copy them to the disk. Also
copy any other files you might need like EDIT.COM or REGEDIT.EXE.
Creating a boot disk for an NTFS or FAT partition
Creating a Boot Disk for an NTFS or FAT Partition
Creating a Boot Disk for an NTFS or FAT Partition
More boot disk instructions
More boot disk instructions, 2
Bootdisk.com - many flavors